Glossary Of Terms

Aging skin

Intrinsic aging – the process of chronological physiological change that results in thin, dry skin, fine wrinkles, and gradual dermal atrophy.

Extrinsic aging – caused by external environmental factors such as air pollution, smoking, poor nutrition and sun exposure, resulting in coarse wrinkles, loss of elasticity, laxity and a rough-textured appearance.

Skin changes that come with age:

  • Skin becomes rougher.
  • Skin develops lesions such as benign tumors.
  • Skin becomes slack. The loss of the elastic tissue (elastin and collagen) in the skin with age causes the skin to hang loosely.
  • Skin becomes more transparent as we age. This is caused by thinning of the epidermis (surface layer of the skin).
  • Skin becomes more fragile as we age. This is caused by a flattening of the area where the epidermis and dermis (layer of skin under the epidermis) come together.
  • Skin becomes more easily bruised. This is due to thinner blood vessel walls as we age.
  • Loss of fat, bone and cartridge.

Skin Layers

The Epidermis, the outermost layer of skin with a thickness of 0.1-0.2mm, provides a waterproof barrier and creates our skin tone.

The Dermis, beneath the epidermis with a thickness of 1-3mm, contains tough connective tissue, hair follicles, and sweat glands.

The Hypodermis, the deeper subcutaneous tissue with a variable thickness, is made of fat and connective tissue.


Collagen is the most abundant protein in the body and the major building blocks of bones, skin, muscles, tendons and ligaments. Collagen provides rigidity to connective tissue and is an essential part of the framework of the design of the various body tissues.


Neo-collagenesis is the formation of new collagen by the body’s own tissue. It occurs in the human body as a natural component of wound repair. The formation of new collagen in scars results from an inflammatory response to injury. This inflammation produces increased fibroblast stimulation and collagen deposits.


A protein that coils and recoils like a spring within the elastic fibers of connective tissue and accounts for the elasticity of structures such as, the skin, blood vessels, heart, lungs, intestines, tendons, and ligaments. Over time, the sun’s ultraviolet (UV) light damages the elastin fibers causing the skin to sag, stretch, and lose its ability to snap back after stretching. Elastin is normally no longer produced after puberty and aging begins.


The formation and development of elastin protein fibers by the body’s own tissue.


A wrinkle, also known as a rhytide, is a fold, ridge or crease on a smooth surface, on the skin.

Fine Lines

Fine lines are small, shallow creases that form on thin, delicate skin. Fine lines on your face are associated with repetitive movements, such as frowning, smiling, squinting, and laughing. Typically, fines lines appear first around the eyes, and mouth.

Fractional Effect

Fractional treatment is the creation of localized small thermal damaged zones in the tissue, separated by regions of healthy tissue. The localized thermal damaged zones in the tissue stimulate an inflammatory wound-healing response between the affected tissue. This causes neo-collagenesis, and thickening of the skin, leading to the reduction in fine lines and wrinkles.

Ultrasound Waves

Ultrasound is a type of oscillating sound pressure waves that have a higher frequency (greater than 20kHZ) than human hearing is able to detect. Usually ultrasound is associated with imaging, but when ultrasound energy reaches a high enough intensity, it can generate heat and other effects in the tissue which can be used for treatment.

Ultrasound Absorption

The reduction in intensity of sound waves as it passes through tissue. Most of the energy lost is in the form of heat.

High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU)

HIFU uses focused ultrasound energy to target the layers of skin just below the epidermis. Ultrasound energy causes tissue to heat up rapidly. Once the cells in the targeted area reach a certain temperature, they experience cellular damage which stimulates the cells to produce more collagen — a protein that provides structure to the skin.

Synchronous Ultrasound Parallel Beam Technology SUPERB™

Synchronous Ultrasound Parallel Beam Technology SUPERB™ uses a high intensity, high frequency, parallel ultrasound beam array delivered through one or more transducers which are in direct contact with the skin. The parallel delivery of the ultrasound beams and the large contact area allow for low sensitivity to tissue inhomogeneity which ensures a uniform effect in the tissue and a repeatable, controllable energy deposition in the skin.

Direct skin contact enables the integration of cooling and real time skin temperature monitoring for complete epidermal protection, accurate targeting of the thermal effect and optimal pain management.

Volumetric Directional Thermal Impact™ (VDTI)

When high frequency Intense Ultrasound Beams propagate through the tissue, they create an array of volumetric cylindrical shaped thermal zones in the dermis separated by regions of undamaged tissue, thereby creating a fractional effect in the mid dermis.

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